China cracking down on worker safety
By Martin Fackler
LONGHUA, China Twelve hours a day, seven days a week, He Qun worked at a factory in China's southeast running a machine that was the size of a small bus and punched holes in heavy steel sheets.
He Qun is one of a growing number of workers maimed in China's factories. She lost her hand while operating machinery at a metal-parts factory.
"All I remember thinking was, 'How did a hand get down there?' " she said.
The 30-year-old said she had no training in safety, and no safety equipment. She was too poor, and her hand too mangled, to get it re-attached.
Tens of thousands of Chinese are killed or maimed every year in similar on-the-job accidents casualties of their country's rise as a manufacturing powerhouse.
Chinese factories, many financed by foreign investors, supply the world with goods from soccer balls to computer chips. But behind the success is a rampant disregard for safety that experts and government officials say makes China one of the most dangerous countries in the world for workers.
The mounting toll of death and injury has grown so severe that Beijing plans to impose China's first national safety laws on Nov. 1.
The new laws replace a patchwork of local regulations. They will require more safety training and equipment and give authorities the power to arrest owners of dangerous factories.
Behind the carnage, experts and officials point to a range of reasons workers exhausted by long hours on outdated machinery, lack of even basic precautions, a ban on independent labor unions that could fight for workplace safety and reluctance by local officials to crack down for fear of losing jobs or payoffs from factory owners.
"Local authorities, factory owners, even workers themselves no one really cares about safety. They all think the risks are a small price to pay for economic advancement," said Xu Deshu, an adviser for the State Administration of Safety Production, the government worker-safety agency.
In a report this month, the administration said 6,314 people were killed in industrial accidents in the first six months of this year.
That's above the pace of last year, when 11,047 workers died in the period, it said.
More than half of this year's deaths were at coal mines, where explosions, cave-ins and flooding killed 3,857 people, the report said.
According to experts, the most accident-prone factories are those that make metal and plastic tubes, casings and other components for goods ranging from DVD players to automobiles.
Misreporting and cover-ups by local officials mean that the real death toll from accidents is probably much higher than the official figures, Xu said. He said the report also fails to include deaths from work-related diseases such as lung illnesses from inhaling industrial chemicals or coal dust.
About 10,000 people die every year from such causes, he said.
The current disregard for safety is rooted in the same feature that makes this nation of 1.3 billion such an export power its almost unlimited supply of cheap labor.
Workers are so plentiful, and paid so little, that factory owners regard them as easier to replace than machinery, experts said.
"As long as business is seen as more important than the lives of workers, I'm not optimistic that any change in law can help," said Zhou Litai, a lawyer in the southeastern province of Guangdong. Zhou's firm has represented hundreds of injured workers in lawsuits, including He Qun, the maimed metalworker.
Guangdong, a prosperous export center, is one of China's most accident-plagued areas.
Every year, more than 30,000 workers in the province's more than 1 million factories and small workshops lose fingers or entire limbs in machinery accidents, according to an investigation by the state-owned newspaper 21st Century Business Herald.
Many of those maimed can't find new work and have no disability insurance or other social safety net to fall back on.
The metalworker He Qun hasn't had a job since losing her right hand in 1998.
She said the Nissin Plastic and Hardware Factory, a Chinese-Japanese joint venture in the city of Longhua in Guangdong, paid her 3,000 yuan after the accident the equivalent of five months' salary, or $350. She said managers then told her to go back to her hometown in the poor southwestern province of Sichuan.
A spokeswoman for the factory said workers are given adequate safety training. She said she knew of He Qun's injury but refused to discuss it. But she said several workers at the factory have been injured in the past.
"Most injuries are caused by their own carelessness," said the spokeswoman, who would give only her family name, Shu.
Since the accident, He Qun said managers at the factory, which employs about 2,000 people, have refused to talk to her, hanging up when she calls and forcibly removing her when she tries to visit.
She has filed a lawsuit in a Guangdong court seeking the equivalent of $12,500.
"For the rest of my life, I can't do anything," said He Qun, who has a fourth-grade education. "I can't find work with just one hand."