INTRODUCTION | A CHRONOLOGY | HONOLULUADVERTISER.COM
Sunday, December 4, 2005
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1898

Filipino Centennial Celebration Commission site/calendar of events


Emilio Aguinaldo proclaims first Philippine Republic on June 12 at Kawit, Cavite, after U.S. naval forces "defeat" a Spanish fleet in a mock battle staged to preserve Spain's honor by avoiding a surrender. In December, Treaty of Paris is signed by the United States and Spain without any Filipino representation. United States buys the Philippines for $20 million.

1899

Philippine-American War starts in February and lasts through 1902, but Filipino resistance continues until 1908. At least 250,000 Filipinos die in battle or from starvation, disease and other wartime hardships.

1901

U.S. establishes first civil government with William Howard Taft as governor. The Hawaii Sugar Planters Association, or HSPA, explores recruiting Filipino labor for Hawai'i plantations.

1906

The first group of 15 sakadas — migrant workers — recruited by the HSPA arrive in Honolulu and are sent to the Ola'a Plantation on the Big Island.

1909

A group of 554 sakadas arrive in Hawai'i, followed by 2,653 in 1910 and 1,363 in 1911. Sakada recruitment intensifies, with 4,319 arriving in Hawai'i in 1912, followed by 3,258 in 1913.

1915

The Philippine government (under U.S. colonial rule) expresses concern about labor outflow and recruitment abuses. HSPA works out a system of individual contracts.

1919

Pablo Manlapit organizes the Filipino Labor Federation to demand higher wages and better working conditions for sakadas.

1920

Labor leaders form the Higher Wages Movement, but HSPA rejects demands. Filipino and Japanese workers strike separately, and nearly 12,100 workers are evicted.

1924

Strike is called by Manlapit, and 16 Filipino workers and four policemen are killed in the "Hanapepe Massacre" on Kaua'i.

1926

Sakadas comprise 50 percent of all plantation workers, displacing the Japanese as most numerous ethnicity.

1932

Manlapit revitalizes the Filipino Labor Federation with Antonio Fagel and Epifanio Taok. Organizing focuses on Maui, and union is renamed Vibora Luviminda.

1940

Half of first-wave sakadas (1906-1930s) leave Hawai'i, either for the U.S. Mainland or back to the Philippines.

1941

World War II breaks out, and martial law stops all labor organizing. The First and Second Filipino Regiments of the U.S. Army see action in the Philippines.

1944

The International Longshore and Warehouse Union, or ILWU, under Jack Hall's leadership becomes a strong political force by organizing ethnic workers, including Filipinos. ILWU grows to more than 30,000 in 1947.

In 1946, member of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union, which included many Filipinos, went on strike. The territory's economy was paralyzed, and soon the ILWU was a major political player.
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1946

ILWU strike paralyzes the Island economy.

HSPA imports the last group of 6,000 Ilocano sakadas.

1947

Philippine Consulate is established in Honolulu, with Modesto Farolan as consul. Filipina writer Ligaya Reyes Fruto joins staff and also writes for the Honolulu Star-Bulletin.

1949

Dock strike breaks out and lasts 157 days. Establishes ILWU as a major power in Hawai'i politics.

1951

Filipino workers on Lana'i, led by ILWU business agent Pedro de la Cruz, strike for 201 days. Major worker benefits are won.

Pastor Pablo, president of the Filipino Chamber of Commerce dressed in a farmer's holiday attire in 1954 to celebrate the 48th anniversary of the arrival of Filipinos in Hawai'i.
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1954

Lawyer Peter Aquino Aduja becomes the first Filipino elected a representative in the territorial Legislature.

Filipino Chamber of Commerce is founded, with Pastor Pablo as president.

1959

Hawai'i becomes the 50th state. The first statewide Filipino convention takes place, resulting in later formation of the United Filipino Council of Hawai'i.

1962

Benjamin Menor is elected to the state Senate, first Filipino immigrant to win a seat there. His son, Ron Menor, would later be elected a state senator.

1965

Liberalized immigration law allows family reunification and professionals to enter U.S., increasing the number of Filipinos to 11 percent of the state population.

1972

President Ferdinand Marcos declares martial law in the Philippines. It would last 14 years, dividing the Filipino community. Anti-martial-law movement is active in Hawai'i.

1973

KISA, the first Filipino-owned radio station in the U.S., opens in Honolulu. A core group of radio personalities host Tagalog, Ilocano and Visayan programs. Emme Tomimbang starts her radio career with Morning Girl program; father Tommy Tomimbang is engineer and hosts "Maligayang Araw" show.

1974

Benjamin Menor is appointed justice of the state Supreme Court, the first Filipino to hold that position in any U.S. state.

1975

Eduardo Malapit is elected mayor of Kaua'i, the first Filipino-American to become mayor of a U.S. county.

The Center for Philippine Studies is established at the University of Hawai'i-Manoa.

1982

Eight candidates of Filipino ancestry are elected to the state Legislature.

1983

The Aloha Medical Mission is established: Volunteer doctors treat indigent patients in the Philippines. Would later send missions to other countries.

1985

Emme Tomimbang is named KITV anchorwoman, the first Filipino-American woman in the country to become a TV news anchor.

Exiled former President Ferdinand Marcos and his wife, Imelda, joined in a chorus of "I am a Filipino" at the couple's Honolulu home in 1986.
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1986

The Marcos dictatorship is toppled, and he arrives in Hawai'i in exile. In 1989, he dies. His preserved body stays in Hawai'i until 1992.

Sister Grace Dorothy Lim, originally from Ilocos Sur, Philippines, is named first woman chancellor of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu.

1990

Lorraine Rodero-Inouye is elected mayor of the Big Island, the first Filipino-American woman to become mayor of a U.S. county.

Filipino population in Hawai'i reaches 170,000, or 14 percent of state population.

1994

Benjamin J. Cayetano, son of an immigrant from Urdaneta, Pangasinan, is elected governor of Hawai'i, the first Filipino-American to occupy the highest office in an American state. He would be re-elected in 1998.

2000

Darolyn Lendio is appointed corporation counsel, the first Filipina to be named to a Cabinet position in the City and County of Honolulu. Another Filipino-American lawyer, Abelina Madrid Shaw, is appointed deputy corporation counsel, also a Cabinet position.

Six Filipino-American candidates win state Senate seats.

Miss Hawai'i Angela Perez Baraquio performs a traditional hula during the talent portion of the Miss America Pageant in 2000 at Atlantic City, N.J. Baraquio, 24, an elementary school gym teacher who lives in Honolulu, was crowned Miss America 2001.
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2001

Robert Bunda is elected state Senate president, the first Filipino-American in the U.S. to hold such a position.

Abelina Madrid Shaw is appointed chief of staff to Honolulu Mayor Jeremy Harris, the first Filipino-American woman to occupy the position in the Honolulu government.

Angela Perez Baraquio becomes first Filipino-American to win Miss America title.

2002

The Filipino Centennial Celebration Commission is created by the Legislature to oversee 100th anniversary, in 2006, of the first Filipino arrivals in Hawai'i.

The Filipino Community Center is completed and inaugurated after several years of raising government grants and private donations.

Five Filipino-American candidates are elected state senators and six win House seats.

2004

Five Filipino-American candidates for the state Senate and seven candidates for the House win. Robert Bunda is re-elected Senate president.

2005-2006

Yearlong observance of the Filipino Centennial starts Dec. 10 with opening ceremony at the Hawai'i Convention Center.

Source: Belinda Aquino, director, Center for Philippine Studies, University of Hawai'i-Manoa

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