Sunday, December 4, 2005

Advertiser Staff


Filipino Centennial Celebration Commission site/calendar of events

Emilio Aguinaldo proclaims first Philippine Republic on June 12 at Kawit, Cavite, after U.S. naval forces "defeat" a Spanish fleet in a mock battle staged to preserve Spain's honor by avoiding a surrender. In December, Treaty of Paris is signed by the United States and Spain without any Filipino representation. United States buys the Philippines for $20 million.


Philippine-American War starts in February and lasts through 1902, but Filipino resistance continues until 1908. At least 250,000 Filipinos die in battle or from starvation, disease and other wartime hardships.


U.S. establishes first civil government with William Howard Taft as governor. The Hawaii Sugar Planters Association, or HSPA, explores recruiting Filipino labor for Hawai'i plantations.


The first group of 15 sakadas — migrant workers — recruited by the HSPA arrive in Honolulu and are sent to the Ola'a Plantation on the Big Island.


A group of 554 sakadas arrive in Hawai'i, followed by 2,653 in 1910 and 1,363 in 1911. Sakada recruitment intensifies, with 4,319 arriving in Hawai'i in 1912, followed by 3,258 in 1913.


The Philippine government (under U.S. colonial rule) expresses concern about labor outflow and recruitment abuses. HSPA works out a system of individual contracts.


Pablo Manlapit organizes the Filipino Labor Federation to demand higher wages and better working conditions for sakadas.


Labor leaders form the Higher Wages Movement, but HSPA rejects demands. Filipino and Japanese workers strike separately, and nearly 12,100 workers are evicted.


Strike is called by Manlapit, and 16 Filipino workers and four policemen are killed in the "Hanapepe Massacre" on Kaua'i.


Sakadas comprise 50 percent of all plantation workers, displacing the Japanese as most numerous ethnicity.


Manlapit revitalizes the Filipino Labor Federation with Antonio Fagel and Epifanio Taok. Organizing focuses on Maui, and union is renamed Vibora Luviminda.


Half of first-wave sakadas (1906-1930s) leave Hawai'i, either for the U.S. Mainland or back to the Philippines.


World War II breaks out, and martial law stops all labor organizing. The First and Second Filipino Regiments of the U.S. Army see action in the Philippines.


The International Longshore and Warehouse Union, or ILWU, under Jack Hall's leadership becomes a strong political force by organizing ethnic workers, including Filipinos. ILWU grows to more than 30,000 in 1947.

In 1946, member of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union, which included many Filipinos, went on strike. The territory's economy was paralyzed, and soon the ILWU was a major political player.

ILWU strike paralyzes the Island economy.

HSPA imports the last group of 6,000 Ilocano sakadas.


Philippine Consulate is established in Honolulu, with Modesto Farolan as consul. Filipina writer Ligaya Reyes Fruto joins staff and also writes for the Honolulu Star-Bulletin.


Dock strike breaks out and lasts 157 days. Establishes ILWU as a major power in Hawai'i politics.


Filipino workers on Lana'i, led by ILWU business agent Pedro de la Cruz, strike for 201 days. Major worker benefits are won.

Pastor Pablo, president of the Filipino Chamber of Commerce dressed in a farmer's holiday attire in 1954 to celebrate the 48th anniversary of the arrival of Filipinos in Hawai'i.

Lawyer Peter Aquino Aduja becomes the first Filipino elected a representative in the territorial Legislature.

Filipino Chamber of Commerce is founded, with Pastor Pablo as president.


Hawai'i becomes the 50th state. The first statewide Filipino convention takes place, resulting in later formation of the United Filipino Council of Hawai'i.


Benjamin Menor is elected to the state Senate, first Filipino immigrant to win a seat there. His son, Ron Menor, would later be elected a state senator.


Liberalized immigration law allows family reunification and professionals to enter U.S., increasing the number of Filipinos to 11 percent of the state population.


President Ferdinand Marcos declares martial law in the Philippines. It would last 14 years, dividing the Filipino community. Anti-martial-law movement is active in Hawai'i.


KISA, the first Filipino-owned radio station in the U.S., opens in Honolulu. A core group of radio personalities host Tagalog, Ilocano and Visayan programs. Emme Tomimbang starts her radio career with Morning Girl program; father Tommy Tomimbang is engineer and hosts "Maligayang Araw" show.


Benjamin Menor is appointed justice of the state Supreme Court, the first Filipino to hold that position in any U.S. state.


Eduardo Malapit is elected mayor of Kaua'i, the first Filipino-American to become mayor of a U.S. county.

The Center for Philippine Studies is established at the University of Hawai'i-Manoa.


Eight candidates of Filipino ancestry are elected to the state Legislature.


The Aloha Medical Mission is established: Volunteer doctors treat indigent patients in the Philippines. Would later send missions to other countries.


Emme Tomimbang is named KITV anchorwoman, the first Filipino-American woman in the country to become a TV news anchor.

Exiled former President Ferdinand Marcos and his wife, Imelda, joined in a chorus of "I am a Filipino" at the couple's Honolulu home in 1986.

The Marcos dictatorship is toppled, and he arrives in Hawai'i in exile. In 1989, he dies. His preserved body stays in Hawai'i until 1992.

Sister Grace Dorothy Lim, originally from Ilocos Sur, Philippines, is named first woman chancellor of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu.


Lorraine Rodero-Inouye is elected mayor of the Big Island, the first Filipino-American woman to become mayor of a U.S. county.

Filipino population in Hawai'i reaches 170,000, or 14 percent of state population.


Benjamin J. Cayetano, son of an immigrant from Urdaneta, Pangasinan, is elected governor of Hawai'i, the first Filipino-American to occupy the highest office in an American state. He would be re-elected in 1998.


Darolyn Lendio is appointed corporation counsel, the first Filipina to be named to a Cabinet position in the City and County of Honolulu. Another Filipino-American lawyer, Abelina Madrid Shaw, is appointed deputy corporation counsel, also a Cabinet position.

Six Filipino-American candidates win state Senate seats.

Miss Hawai'i Angela Perez Baraquio performs a traditional hula during the talent portion of the Miss America Pageant in 2000 at Atlantic City, N.J. Baraquio, 24, an elementary school gym teacher who lives in Honolulu, was crowned Miss America 2001.

Robert Bunda is elected state Senate president, the first Filipino-American in the U.S. to hold such a position.

Abelina Madrid Shaw is appointed chief of staff to Honolulu Mayor Jeremy Harris, the first Filipino-American woman to occupy the position in the Honolulu government.

Angela Perez Baraquio becomes first Filipino-American to win Miss America title.


The Filipino Centennial Celebration Commission is created by the Legislature to oversee 100th anniversary, in 2006, of the first Filipino arrivals in Hawai'i.

The Filipino Community Center is completed and inaugurated after several years of raising government grants and private donations.

Five Filipino-American candidates are elected state senators and six win House seats.


Five Filipino-American candidates for the state Senate and seven candidates for the House win. Robert Bunda is re-elected Senate president.


Yearlong observance of the Filipino Centennial starts Dec. 10 with opening ceremony at the Hawai'i Convention Center.

Source: Belinda Aquino, director, Center for Philippine Studies, University of Hawai'i-Manoa

© COPYRIGHT 2005 The Honolulu Advertiser, a division of Gannett Co. Inc.
Use of this site indicates your agreement to the Terms of Service and Privacy Policy (updated 6/7/2005)